30.03 SHLOKAS 11 TO 15 OF SHATA-SHLOKI
shreyaH preyashca loke dvividham-abhihitaM kAmyam-AtyantikaM ca
kAmyaM dukhaika-bIjaM kshhaNa-lava-virasaM tac-cikIrshhanti mandAH /
brahmaiv-AtyantikaM yan-niratishaya-sukhasy-AspadaM samshrayante
tatvajnAs-tac-ca kATopanishad-abhihitaM shhaD-vidhAyAM ca vallyAM //
loke : In the world
dvividhaM abhihitaM : there are two kinds (of goals), namely,
shreyaH : what is preferable
preyaH ca : and what is pleasant.
AtyantikaM ca : That which is absolute
kAmyaM : and that which is activated by desire.
kAmyaM : The desire-activated one
dukha-eka-bIjaM : is the sole source of sorrow
kshhaNa-lava-virasaM : and becomes insipid in an instant.
mandAH : The ignorant
tat cikIrshhanti : go after it.
Brahma eva : Brahman alone
AtyantikaM : is the Absolute.
Yat AspadaM : It is the repository
niratishaya-sukhasya : of unsurpassed Bliss.
tatvajnAH : Those who know the Truth
tat samshrayante : take refuge therein.
abhihitaM : (This) is declared
KATopanishat ca : also (by) the Kathopanishad
shhaD-vidhAyAM vallyAM : in its six divisions (‘vallis’).
AtmAmbodhes-tarango’smy-aham-iti gamane bhAvayan-nAsanasthaH
samvit-sUtrA-nuviddho maNir-aham-iti vA’sm-IndriyArtha-pratItau /
dRshhTo’smy-AtmAvalokAd-iti shayana-vidhau magna Ananda-sindhau
antar-nishhTo mumukshhuH sa khalu tanubhRtAM yo nayaty-evam-AyuH //
tanubhRtAM : Among all human beings
mumukshhuH : the real seeker of liberation
sa khalu yaH : is indeed he, who
antar-nishhTaH : being inwardly firm,
AyuH nayati : spends his whole life
evam bhAvayan : with the following attitude, (namely)
ahaM tarangaH asmi iti : that ‘I am (only) a wave
AtmAmbodheH : of the Ocean of the Self’
gamane : while going about,
ahaM maNiH iti : that ‘I am (only) a bead
samvit-sUtrAnuviddhaH : strung on the thread of Universal Consciousness’
AsanasthaH : while seated,
AtmAvalokAt dRshhTaH asmi iti : that ‘I am perceiving myself through this perception of the Self’
indriyArtha-pratItau : while sense-objects are perceived, (and)
Ananda-sindhau magnaH : that ‘I am deep into the Ocean of Bliss’
shayana-vidhau : while sleeping.
Note 1: This shloka is a beautifully capsuled answer to those who like to question: “How does an advaitin live? What is to be practised for being an advaitin?”.
Note 2: This is the time for members to seek parallel statements in advaitic literature. That would strengthen our conviction in what is said. That would also help the ‘nidhidhyAsana’ of advaitic logic and its conclusions.
vairAja-vyashhTi-rUpaM jagad-akhilam-idaM nAma-rUpAtmakaM syAt
antaHstha-prANa-mukhyAt pracalati ca punar-vetti sarvAn padArthAn /
nAyaM kartA na bhoktA savitRvad-iti yo jnAna-vijnAna-pUrNaH
sAkshAd-ithaM vijAnan vyavaharati parAtmA-nusandhAna-pUrvaM //
idaM jagat akhilaM : All this world
nAma-rUpAtmakaM : consisting of name and form (only)
vairAja-vyashhTi-rUpaM syAt : is only the individualised manifestation (‘vyashhTi’) of the universal entity (‘vairAja’, meaning, of ‘virAT’).
antaHstha-prANa-mukhyAt : By virtue of the primal life-force within,
pracalati : it moves
punaH vetti : and knows
sarvAn padArthAn : all objects.
ithaM sAkshhAt vijAnan : Thus directly realising
iti : that
savitRvat : ‘Like the Sun
na ayaM kartA : this Self is not the doer
na bhoktA : nor the experiencer’,
yaH jnAna-vijnAna-pUrNaH : he, who is full of theoretical knowledge and experiential confirmation,
vyavaharati : carries on his life-journey
parAtma-anusandhAna-pUrvaM : through contemplative living in the Supreme Self.
Note: So what is the bottom line for us? It is “parAtma-anusandhAnaM”. The Acharya’s stamp in each shloka is what we have to take as his final teaching to us. Recall that he defines Bhakti itself in ‘Viveka-chudamani’ as “sva-svarUpa-anusandhAnaM”, that is, ‘Contemplative living in one’s natural state’.
nairvedyaM jnAna-garbhaM dvividham-abhihitaM tatra vairAgyam-AdyaM
prAyo dukhA-valokAd-bhavati gRha-suhRt-putra-vittai-shhaNAdeH /
anya-jnAno-padeshAd-yad-udita-vishhaye vAntavat heyatA syAt
pravrajyA’pi dvidhA syAn-niyamita-manasAM dehato gehatashca //
vairAgyaM : Non-attachment
dvividham-abhihitaM : is pronounced to be of two kinds, (namely)
nairvedyaM : that which is inspired by disgust (‘nirveda’)
jnAna-garbhaM : (and) that which originates from knowledge.
AdyaM : The former
bhavati : arises
dukha-avalokAt : from the observation of the sorrowful ending
prAyaH : generally
gRha-suhRt-putra-vitta-IshhaNAdeH : of desires for home, friends, sons or wealth.
anya-jnAna-upadeshAt yat : The latter, by virtue of the wisdom imparted,
heyatA syAt : is the rejection of
udita-vishhaye : the above-mentioned things,
vAntavat : like vomitted matter.
niyamita-manasAM : For those of controlled mind,
pravrajyA api : renunciation also
dvidhA syAt : is of two kinds, (namely)
dehataH : from the body
gehatash-ca : and from the home.
Note: Renunciation from the home, has to be ‘jnAna-garbhaM’ (born out of wisdom), rather than, of just a disgust for worldly life. Only then it will lead to renunciation of the body, mind and intellect.
yaH kashcit soukhya-hetos-trijagati yatate naiva dukhasya hetoH
dehe’hantA tad-utthA sva-vishhaya-mamatA ceti dukh-Aspade dve /
bhAryA-putr-Artha-nAshe vipadam-atha parAm-eti na-arAti-nAshe //
yaH kashcit : Any one
trijagati : in all the three worlds
yatate : strives
soukhya-hetoH : for the sake of happiness
na eva dukhasya hetoH : and never for the sake of misery.
dukha-Aspade dve : (There are) two sources of misery,
iti : namely,
dehe ahantA : the sense of I-ness in the body
tadutthA ca : and, arising therefrom,
sva-vishhaya-mamatA : the sense of ‘mine’ in one’s interests.
yataH : For,
jAnan : (even) the learned man
anitya-dehAtma-buddhiH : mistaking the transient body for the Self,
anubhavati : undergoes
roga-abhighAta-Adi : suffering from disease, assault, etc.
atha parAM vipadam-eti : and also experiences great sorrow
bhAryA-putra-artha-nAshe :at the loss of wife, son or wealth;
na arAti-nAshe : (but) not at the loss of an enemy!
Note 1: The last words “na-arAti-nAshe” form the punchline of the shloka and rightly bring to focus how an absence of equanimity is the great obstacle in the spiritual ascent. This is why even in the most popular ShAnti mantra “sahanAvavatu ..”, there is what looks like a postscript: “mA vidvishAvahai” – ‘Let us not hate anything or any one’.
Note 2: The standard question that is asked whenever this equanimity is emphasized, is “How do you practise equanimity in real life? Is it not just a theoretical abstraction?”. An elaboration of a possible answer to this trend of thinking, with particular reference to the Gita, has been attempted in 25.7 ( Bliss of Equanimity).